Structure of Alkanes – Important Terms
Aliphatic hydrocarbon – Hydrocarbons that don’t contain benzene-like rings, in contrast to aromatic hydrocarbons.
Alkane – Aliphatic hydrocarbon that consists of all single bonds.
Alkene – Aliphatic hydrocarbon that contains C=C double bonds.
Alkyne – Aliphatic hydrocarbon that contains C-C triple bonds.
Aromatic hydrocarbon – Hydrocarbons that contain benzene-like rings, in contrast to aliphatic hydrocarbons.
Cis-trans isomerism – Stereoisomers that differ in the relative positions of substituents about a double bond or ring.
Condensed structural formula – An abbreviated way of writing organic molecules in which C-H bonds are omitted. C-C bonds can also be omitted.
Constitutional isomer – Isomer that differs in the connectivities of atoms.
Cyclic alkane – An alkane whose carbon chain loops back on itself to form a ring.
Hydrocarbon – A molecule that consists only of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Isomer – Two different molecules with the same molecular formula.
IUPAC nomenclature – A systematic method of naming organic molecules that unambiguously denotes the connectivity of a compound.
Line-angle structure – An abbreviated way of writing organic molecules in which explicit carbon and hydrogen atoms are left out. Carbon atoms reside at the vertices and endpoints of lines and the number of hydrogens are implicitly known from the tetravalence of carbon.
Methylene group – An internal component of a molecule of the structure –CH 2 -.
n-alkane – Straight-chain alkanes; no branching.
Organic chemistry – The study of compounds that contain carbon.
Saturated – An organic compound that has no Π bonds.
Stereoisomer – Isomers that are not constitutional isomers. These differ in the spatial arrangement of atoms.
Substituent – Chemical group that branches off of the parent chain in a molecule.
Trivial name – A name that is acquired through common usage.
Unsaturated – An organic compound that contains at least one Π bond.
Unsaturation number – The sum of the number of rings and Π bonds in a molecule.
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