Valence Bond Theory:

• A discussion of valence bond theory is based on the knowledge of atomic orbitals, electronic configuration of elements, overlap criteria of atomic orbitals and principles of variation and superposition. • Orbital Overlap Concept of Covalent Bond: When two atoms approach each other, partial merger of two bonding orbitals, known as overlapping of the orbitals occurs.  • Depending upon the type of overlapping, the covalent bonds  may be divided as sigma (σ) bond and Pi ( π ) bond. • Sigma (σ) bond: This type of covalent bond is formed by the end to end (hand on) overlapping of bonding orbitals along the inter-nuclear axis. The overlap is known as head on overlap or axial overlap. The sigma bond is formed by any one of the following types of combinations of atomic orbitals. Sigma (σ) bond can be formed by  s – s overlapping, s – poverlapping, p – p Overlapping etc. • Pi ( π ) Bond: This type of covalent bond is formed by the sidewise overlap of the half- filled atomic orbitals of bonding atoms.  Such an overlap is known as sidewise or lateral overlap.

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